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Chinese Insect Eating Citrus Plants Invades East Africa




Scientists in Tanzania and Kenya are currently grappling with a new disruption caused by an insect believed to have originated from Far East of the World China.

This insect has been identified as Diaphorina Citri and zoologists say it is responsible for transmitting a bacterium in plants that causes a disease known as Citrus Greening Disease.

Citrus Greening Disease has been well known for destroying hectares of citrus plants in major producing countries in Asia and America in the past decade.

Citrus is produced in most countries in Africa. In east Africa, Tanzania ranks third in citrus production after Kenya and Madagascar with a total production of about 45084 metric tons annually, according to the UN FAO.

Tanzanian scientists say, although the insect exists in the East African country as per the recent study, no destruction to citrus production caused by its Citrus Greening Disease, has been significantly recorded.

Mohamed Mpina, a senior research scientist in plant protection from the Tropical Pesticide Research Institute (TPRI) says, “Plans are underway to establish any potential risk. we are currently raising awareness among farmers.”

Another lead author of the study, Dr. Fathiya Khamis, a molecular biologist and a research scientist at the International Centre of Insect and Pest Ecology (ICIPE) said that citrus greening disease which is related to the insect is incurable, explaining why the study is advocating for preventive measures.

Africa’s citrus industry is under imminent threat because the pest is spreading fast in the continent and with it , the devastating citrus greening disease (HLB)”, says Dr Khmais who is currently researching on the invasive and non-invasive fruit flies and other pests of economic importance to agricultural sector.

Farmers in these coastal economies are using contact and systematic insecticides such as Phosmet, Thiocylam and imidacloprid which are not human and environmentally friendly.

“These pesticides are toxic and have deleterious effects on human health. The insecticides also pose a threat to non-target insects especially the ecosystem service providers such as pollinators as well as natural enemies such as parasitoids and predators, she said.

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Russia Responsible For 6.9% of World’s Carbon Dioxide Emissions Since 1850



According to data from the Union of Concerned Scientists, Russia ranks fourth in the world for annual carbon emissions.

But if overall emissions since the pre-Industrial period are taken into account, Russia moves to third place, behind the United States and China, Carbon Brief said.

In total, Russia has emitted around 170 billion tons of CO2 in the past 170 years, Carbon Brief’s analysis said.

“Historical responsibility for climate change is at the heart of debates over climate justice,” Carbon Brief wrote.

This year’s Carbon Brief analysis includes emissions from land use and forestry, two key sectors of Russia’s economy, for the first time. About one-third of Russia’s emissions are linked to these areas.

While fossil fuels and construction have been taking up an increasing share of global carbon emissions since the 1950s, land use and forestry remain large sources of emissions.

The analysis comes ahead of the COP26 climate conference, which climate scientists say will prove critical in securing commitments to keep global temperatures from rising more than 2 degrees Celsius over pre-Industrial levels and avoiding catastrophic ecological consequences.

Despite making up 10% of the world’s population, industrialized nations have contributed 39% in overall carbon emissions since 1850, Carbon Brief said.

Meanwhile, developing countries are responsible for 23% of emissions while making up 42% of the global population.

Industrialized countries (the U.S., Germany, Russia, the U.K., Japan and Canada) top the Carbon Brief ranking both for annual emissions and per-capita emissions. In contrast, China, India, Brazil and Indonesia’s per-capita emissions are much lower due to their large populations but still account for high overall emissions.

Russia has yet to commit to any new major climate reforms ahead of COP26, which is due to start in three weeks.

Six of the top 10 carbon emitting nations have yet to present their more ambitious climate strategies as required under the Paris Agreement.

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U$280Billion Needed To Fix Climate Change Effects In Kenya, S.Africa, Ethiopia



Kenya, Ethiopia and South Africa will need to spend a total of U$280billion in the next thirty years to fix climate change challenges.

According to a new research study released on Monday, investments of about $280 billion will be needed to cope with the effects of climate change in 35 cities in South Africa, Kenya and Ethiopia by 2050.

The research was conducted by the Coalition for Urban Transitions (CUT), that advises governments on economic development and climate change.

“Africa’s urban development is likely to confront unprecedented biophysical risks,” the group said.

“Three pillars will be crucial for low-carbon, climate-resilient urban development: compact urban growth, connected infrastructure, and clean technologies.”

The group observed that Africa is the fastest urbanizing continent and also the hardest hit by global warming.

Africa’s urban population increased 20-fold between 1950 and 2015 to some 567 million people, making “efficient and inclusive urban planning extremely difficult,” according to the report.

A further 950 million people are expected to live in African cities by 2050.

South Africa will need U$215 billion in investment in its cities, Kenya U$27 billion and Ethiopia U$42 billion, the report found.

While it’s a large sum, the investment in the 35 centers with over 250,000 inhabitants each would deliver $1.1 trillion in benefits, with Johannesburg accounting for $260 billion of that and Nairobi $100 billion.

Trillions of dollars of investment will be needed across the continent, the group said. Impediments to raising the capital include “weak municipal creditworthiness and inefficient revenues collection mechanisms,” it said. “Mobilizing finance at scale will necessitate that the regulatory and financial frameworks and policies are reformed rapidly to unlock investment in cities.”

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DRC’s Conservation Chief Resigns From ICCN



Reports reaching Taarifa confirm that Cosma Wilungula, Director General of the Congolese Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICCN) temporarily suspended by his supervisory authority, has just resigned from his post.

In a correspondence which he addressed respectively to the President and to the Deputy Prime Minister in charge of Environment and Sustainable Development, Mr. Wilungula said his decision to resign was triggered by an unhealthy climate which has developed between him and his supervisers saying makes it impossible for him to serve his country.

“I note that by this unhealthy climate which is developing between this ministerial authority towards myself, I can no longer continue to serve my country in this post for the time being. That’s why, I personally judged to present my resignation to you as CEO of ICCN ”, he explained his decision.

Wilungula also returned to the accusations against him which earned him the preventive suspension.

“The serious breaches of regulatory duties and mismanagement are in no way justified because, in fact, during my mandate I have never been the subject of disciplinary action, let alone any disciplinary sanction whatsoever”, he noted.

In his letter of resignation, the director general still praises his sixteen years of management of this public establishment.

“I left the ICCN at the level where, despite sporadic state subsidies, but with the tireless support of partners, under my aegis, we achieved several records that there is no need for everything indicate here, but including the most recent for illustration, the electrification of a large part of the province of North Kivu, by the creation of four hydroelectric power stations and the removal of the Salonga National Park from the world heritage list in danger,” he said.

A few days ago, Eve Bazaiba, Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of the Environment and Sustainable Development, set up a joint commission to rule on the case of Cosma Wilungula, and later suspended him.

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